If you’re interested in marine mammals you’ve probably heard about the walruses that have visited Europe this year causing a huge amount of interest and concern. They are not the only marine mammals to have turned up in places where we wouldn’t normally expect to find them and so Mark Simmonds and I organised the “Out of Habitat” Marine Mammal Workshop to investigate the matter further. The workshop took place at the end of September and we are now pleased to share the report of the workshop so please take a look if you would like to know more!
Last week OceanCare published the report UNDER PRESSURE – The need to protect Whales and Dolphins in European Waters. As the editor of this report and a contributor to three of the chapters, I would like to encourage anyone interested in the threats facing cetaceans in Europe to read it and to take heed of the recommendations. Action is needed now to protect many species and populations from the threats of climate change, chemical pollution, noise pollution, bycatch, plastic pollution, disease and hunting.
Happy to have helped Mark Simmonds OBE from the University of Bristol and the Humane Society International draft this letter which has been signed by hundreds of cetacean experts. In it, we call for quicker action to prevent the extinction of many cetacean populations and species. For more information, please read the letter here.
Artelle KA, Anderson SC, Reynolds JD, et al. (2016) Ecology of conflict: marine food supply affects human-wildlife interactions on land. Scientific Reports. 6:25936. DOI: 10. 1038/srep25936.
Bautista C, Revilla E, Naves J, et al. (2019) Large carnivore damage in Europe: Analysis of compensation and prevention programs. Biol. Conserv. 235, 308-316. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2019.04.019.
Broom DM (1991) Animal welfare: Concepts and measurement. J. Anim. Sci. 69(10), 4167-4175. DOI:10.2527/1991.69104167x.
Butler JRA (2011) The challenge of knowledge integration in the adaptive co-management of conflicting ecosystem services provided by seals and salmon. Anim. Conserv. 14, 599-601. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2011.00509.x.
Butterworth A, Simmonds MP (2017) People – Marine Mammal Interactions. Frontiers in Marine Science 4, 183 p. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2017.00183. Available here.
Can ÖE, D’Cruze N, Garshelis DL, Beecham J, Macdonald DW (2014) Resolving human‐bear conflict: A global survey of countries, experts, and key factors. Conserv. Lett., 7(6), 501-513.
Capitani C, Bertelli I, Varuzza P, Scandura M, Apollonio M (2004) A comparative analysis of wolf (Canis lupus) diet in three different Italian ecosystems. Mamm. Biol. 69, 1-10.
Coram A, Gordon J, Thompson D, Northridge S (2014) Evaluating and assessing the relative effectiveness of non-lethal measures, including Acoustic Deterrent Devices, on marine mammals. Scottish Government. Available here.
Cronin M, Jessopp M, Houle J, Reid D (2014) Fishery-seal interactions in Irish waters: Current perspectives and future research priorities. Mar. Policy. 44, 120-130. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2013.08.015.
Darimont CT, Paquet PC, Treves A, Artelle KA (2018) Political populations of large carnivores. Conserv. Biol. 32(3), 747-749. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13065
Davis JM and Stamps JA (2004) The effect of natal experience on habitat preferences. Trends Ecol. Evol. 19, 411–416. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2004.04.006.
Dawkins MS (2012) Why animals matter: Animal consciousness, animal welfare and human well-being. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. ISBN: 9780199587827
Espuno N, Lequette B, Poulle ML, Migot P, Lebreton JD (2004) Heterogeneous response to preventive sheep husbandry during wolf recolonization of the French Alps. Wildlife Soc. B 32, 1195–1208.
Fernández-Gil A, Naves J, Ordiz A, Quevedo M, Revilla E, Delibes M (2016) Conflict misleads large carnivore management and conservation: Brown bears and wolves in Spain. PLoS One 11, e0151541. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151541.
Gazzola A, Capitani C, Mattioli L, Apollonio M (2008) Livestock damage and wolf presence. J. Zool. 274, 261-269.
Götz T, Janik VM (2013) Acoustic deterrent devices to prevent pinniped depredation: efficiency, conservation concerns and possible solutions. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 492, 285-302. DOI: 10.3354/meps10482.
Graham IM, Harris RN, Denny B, Fowden D, Pullan D (2009) Testing the effectiveness of an acoustic deterrent device for excluding seals from Atlantic salmon rivers in Scotland. ICES J. Mar. Sci. DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsp111.
Graham IM, Harris RN, Matejusová I, Middlemas SJ (2011) Do ‘rogue’ seals exist? Implications for seal conservation in the UK. Anim. Conserv. 14, 587-598. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2011.00469.x.
Haber GC (1996) Biological, Conservation, and Ethical Implications of Exploiting and Controlling Wolves. Conser. Biol. 10(4), 1068-1081. DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1996.10041068.x.
Hayes RD, Farnell R, Ward RMP, Carey J, Dehn M, Kuzyk GW, Baer AM, Gardner CL, O’Donoghue M (2003) Experimental Reduction of Wolves in the Yukon: Ungulate Responses and Management Implications. Wildlife Monographs. 152: 1-35. Available here.
Hemmingsson M, Fjälling A, Lunneryd S-G (2008) The pontoon trap: Description and function of a seal-safe trap-net. Fish. Res. 93, 357-359. DOI: 10.1016/j.fishres.2008.06.013.
Imbert C, Caniglia R, Fabbri E, Milanesi P, Randi E, Serafini M, Torretta E, Meriggi A (2016) Why do wolves eat livestock? Factors influencing wolf diet in northern Italy. Biol. Conserv. 195, 156–168.
Jędrzejewski W, Schmidt K, Theuerkauf J, Jędrzejewska B, Okarma H (2001) Daily movements and territory use by radio-collared wolves (Canis lupus) in Białowieża Primeval Forest in Poland. Can. J. Zool. 79, 1993–2004.
Kojola I, Ronkainen S, Hakala A, Heikkinen S, Kokko S (2004) Interactions between wolves Canis lupus and dogs C familiaris in Finland. Wildl. Biol. 10, 101-105.
Königson S, Fjälling A, Berglind M, Lunneryd S-G (2013) Male gray seals specialize in raiding salmon traps. Fish. Res. 148, 117-123. DOI: 10.1016/j.fishres.2013.07.014.
Laland KN (2004) Social learning strategies. Learn. Behav. 32(1), 4-14. DOI: 10.3758/BF03196002.
Langenhof MR and Komdeur J (2018) Why and how the early-life environment affects development of coping behaviours. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 72, 34. DOI: /10.1007/s00265-018-2452-3.
Lennox RJ, Gallagher AJ, Ritchie EG, Cooke SJ (2018) Evaluating the efficacy of predator removal in a conflict-prone world. Biol. Conserv. 224, 277–289. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2018.05.003.
Linnell JDC, Cretois B (2018) Research for AGRI Committee – The revival of wolves and other large predators and its impact on farmers and their livelihood in rural regions of Europe, European Parliament, Policy Department for Structural and Cohesion Policies, Brussels, 102 p.
Lunneryd SG, Fjälling A, Westerberg H (2003) A large-mesh salmon trap: a way of mitigating seal impact on a coastal fishery. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 60, 1194-1199. DOI: 10.1016/S1054e3139(03)00145-0.
Mattioli L, Capitani C, Gazzola A, Scandura M, Apollonio M (2011) Prey selection and dietary response by wolves in a high-density multi-species ungulate community. Eur. J. Wildl. Res. 57, 909–922. DOI: 101007/s10344-011-0503-4.
Mech LD, Boitani L (2003) Wolf social ecology. In: Mech LD, Boitaini L, editors. Wolves. Behavior, ecology and conservation. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 1-34.
Mech LD, Peterson RO (2003) Wolf-prey relations In: Mech LD, Boitaini L, editors. Wolves. Behavior, ecology and conservation. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 131-160.
Mellor D (2016) Updating animal welfare thinking: moving beyond the “Five Freedoms” towards “A life worth living”. Animals. 6, 21. DOI:10.3390/ani6030021.
Mellor DJ, Reid CSW (1994) Concepts of animal well-being and predicting the impact of procedures on experimental animals. In: R Baker, G Jenkin, DJ Mellor (eds.) Improving the well-being of animals in the research environment. Australian and New Zealand Council for the Care of Animals in Research and Teaching, Glen Osmand, SA, Australia.
Meriggi A, Lovari S (1996) A review of wolf predation in Southern Europe: does the wolf prefer wild prey to livestock? J. Appl. Ecol. 33, 1561–1571.
Meriggi A, Brangi A, Matteucci C, Sacchi O (1996) The feeding habits of wolves in relation to large prey availability in northern Italy. Ecography 19, 287-295.
Merrick MJ and Koprowski JL (2016) Evidence of natal habitat preference induction within one habitat type. Proc. R. Soc. B. 283, 20162106. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2016.2106.
Nash CE, Iwamoto RN, Mahnken CVW (2000) Aquaculture risk management and marine mammal interactions in the Pacific Northwest. Aquaculture 184, 307-323.
Nicol C, Bejder L, Green L, Johnson C, Keeling L, Noren D, van der Hoop J, Simmonds M (2020) Anthropogenic threats to wild cetacean welfare and a tool to inform policy in this area. Fron. Vet. Sci. 7, 57. DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00057.
Northridge S, Coram C, Gordon J (2013) Investigations on seal depredations at Scottish fish farms. Report to Marine Scotland. Sea Mammal Research Unit. University of St Andrews, Scotland, 79 p. Available here.
Nunny L (2020) Animal Welfare in Predator Control: Lessons from Land and Sea. How the management of terrestrial and marine mammals impacts wild animal welfare in human-wildlife conflict scenarios in Europe. Animals 10(2). DOI: 10.3390/ani10020218.
Nunny L, Langford F, Simmonds MP (2016) Does the seal licensing system in Scotland have a negative impact on seal welfare? Fron. Mar. Sci. 3, 142. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2016.00142.
Nunny L, Simmonds MP, Butterworth A (2018) A Review of Seal Killing Practice in Europe: Implications for Animal Welfare. Mar. Policy. 98, 121-132. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2018.08.013.
OIE (2019) Terrestrial Animal Health Code. World Organisation for Animal Health. Available here.
Packard JM (2003) Wolf behavior: Reproductive, social, and intelligent. In: LD Mech and L Boitaini (eds,) Wolves. Behavior, ecology, and conservation. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press. pp 35-65.
Palazón S. (2017) The importance of reintroducing large carnivores: the brown bear in the Pyrenees. In: Catalan J, Ninot JM, Aniz MM, editors. High Mountain Conservation in a Changing World. Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 231-249.
Peebles KA, Wielgus RB, Maletzke BT, Swanson ME (2013) Effects of remedial sport hunting on cougar complaints and livestock depredations. PLoS One 8, 1–8. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079713.
Peterson RO, Ciucci P (2003) The wolf as a carnivore. In: Mech LD, Boitaini L, editors. Wolves. Behavior, ecology and conservation. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 104-130.
PirosLife (2018) PirosLife Catalunya Programme – for the consolidation of a bear population in Central Pyrenees. Website. Available here.
PirosLife Team (2019) Protection of livestock and apiculture. Quercus – Proyecto PirosLife Special Number, 8-11. ISSN:0212-0054. (In Spanish).
Schulte-Pelkum N, Wieskotten S, Hanke W, Dehnhardt G, Mauck B (2007) Tracking of biogenic hydrodynamic trails in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) J. Exp. Biol. 210, 781-787. DOI: 10.1242/jeb.02708
Sharp T, Saunders G (2011) A model for assessing the relative humaneness of pest animal control methods. Second edition. Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Canberra, ACT, 126 p.
Shivik JA, Treves A, Callahan P (2003) Nonlethal Techniques for Managing Predation: Primary and Secondary Repellents. Conserv. Biol. 17(6), 1531-1537. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2003.00062.x.
van Eeden LM, Crowther MS, Dickman CR, Macdonald DW, Ripple WJ, Ritchie EG, Newsome TM (2018) Managing conflict between large carnivores and livestock. Conserv. Biol. 32(1), 26-34. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.12959.
van Liere D, Dwyer C, Jordan D, Premik-Banič A, Valenčič A, Kompan D, Siard N (2013) Farm characteristics in Slovene wolf habitat related to attacks on sheep. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 144, 46–56.
Varjopuro R (2011) Co-existence of seals and fisheries? Adaptation of a coastal fishery for recovery of the Baltic grey seal. Mar. Policy. 35, 450-456. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2010.10.023.
Wielgus RB, Peebles KA (2014) Effects of wolf mortality on livestock depredations. PLoS One 9, 1–16. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113505.
In 2018 I received a small grant from Wild Animal Initiative to carry out some research into predator controls and how they affect animal welfare. Wild Animal Initiative subsequently funded the publication of an article I wrote on this topic and I am pleased to announce that this has now been published in the journal Animals and it is available here. The title of the article is “Animal Welfare in Predator Control: Lessons from Land and Sea. How the Management of Terrestrial and Marine Mammals Impacts Wild Animal Welfare in Human–Wildlife Conflict Scenarios in Europe.” I am very grateful to WAI for their financial support and to Mark Simmonds for his helpful comments and suggestions during the writing of the article.